The Adjective

The Adjective

                The Adjective is the word which is the description of an object or a person. The adjectives answer to questions: What (kind of)? They are the words like: new, pink, great… The Adjectives in Russian have 4 characteristics:

  1. Number : plural, singular

  2. Gender:  masculine, feminine, neuter

  3. Case: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Instrumental, Prepositional

  4. Degrees of Comparison: Comparative, Superlative

                  Three first characteristics are related and depend on the Noun (object or person) which is described by the Adjective.

                  All the characteristic are shown by the change of endings. The dictionary form of all the Russian adjectives is Singular, Masculine, Nominative Case.

Nominative Case

Singular

Plural

Masculine

-ый, -ий, -ой

 

большой

хороший

светлый

 

Feminine

-ая

 

большая

хорошая

светлая

Neuter

-ое, -ее(after sibilant)

большое

хорошее

светлое

For all Genders

-ые, -ие

 

большие

хорошие

светлые

Other Cases

Hard (“-ый”, “-ой”, “-ий” (but not “-ний”)

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

-ый

-ая

 -ое

-ые

Accusative Case

-ый

-ого (anim.)

-ую

 -ое

-ые

-ых (anim.)

Genitive Case

-ого

-ой

 -ого

-ых

Dative Case

-ому

-ой

 -ому

-ым

Instrumental Case

-ым

-ой

 -ым

-ыми

Prepositional Case

-ом

-ой

 -ом

-ых

Soft (“-ний”)

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Plural

Nominative Case

     -ий

-яя

-ее

-ие

Accusative Case

      -ий

-его (anim.)

-юю

-ее

-ие

-их (anim.)

Genitive Case

    -его

-ей

-его

-их

Dative Case

    -ему

-ей

-ему

-им

Instrumental Case

     -им

-ей (or -ею)

-им

-ими

Prepositional Case

     -ем

-ей

-ем

-их

Comparative Adjectives

                Comparative Adjectives are used to show higher level of  Adjective meaning. Like: strong – stronger, white – whiter, expensive – more expensive, etc. In Russian there are also two ways of making such Adjectives:

1.    By adding the words “more”, “less” – «более», «менее»

2.    By changing the ending. These are formed by adding either “ее” or “е” to the stem of the adjective.

Этот дом более высокий чем наш – This house is higher than ours

Твоя машина быстрее моей (быстрый) – Your car is faster than mine.

Superlative Adjectives — Most

The superlative is how we indicate something is the best, or the most. (Eg, “the most beautiful”, “smallest”, “oldest”). To do this we simply use the adjective “самый” (most) which declines like a normal adjective.

Cамый красивый дом — The most beautiful house.

Cамое дешёвое вино — The cheapest wine.

Cамая красивая женщина — The most beautiful woman

Запись была опубликована в рубрике Grammar. Ссылка на запись.

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